30
Oct

SITOSKELETON

Posted By HIJROFAYANTI in Uncategorized

 

Sitoskeleton atau kerangka sel adalah jaring berkas-berkas protein yang menyusun sitoplasma eukariota. Jaring-jaring ini terdiri dari tiga tipe dasar, yaitu mikrofilamen, mikrotubulus (jamak: mikrotubuli), dan intermediat filamen. Ketiga filamen ini terhubung satu sama lain dan saling berkoordinasi. Dengan adanya sitoskeleton, sel dapat memiliki bentuk yang kokoh, berubah bentuk, mampu mengatur posisi organel, berenang, serta merayap di permukaan. Fungsi dari skeleton adalah memberikan kekuatan mekanik pada sel, menjadi kerangka sel, membantu gerakan substansi dari satu bagaian sel ke bagian lain.

 


 

1.      Mikrotubula

Mikrotubula ditemukan dalam sitoplasma semua sel eukariotik. Mikrotubula itu berupa batang lurus dan berongga. Mikrotubulus tersusun atas bola-bola molekul yang disebut tubulin. Diameter mikrotubulus kira-kira 25 nm, panjangnya 200 nm. Dindingnya terdiri dari 13 kolom molekul tubulin. Mikrotubulus merupakan serabut penyusun sitoskeleton terbesar.

Setiap molekul tubulin terdiri atas dua subunit polipeptida yang serupa, alpha tubulin dan betha tubulin. Mikrotubula memanjang dengan menambah molekul tubulin diujung-ujungnya. Mikrotubula dapat dibongkar dan tubulinnya digunakan untuk membangun mikrotubula dimana saja di dalam sel.


2.      Filamen intermediet (Serabut antara)

Filamen antara adalah rantai molekul protein yang berbentuk untaian yang saling melilit. Filamen ini berdiameter 8-12 nm. Disebut serabut antara karena berukuran diantara ukuran mikrotubulus dan mikrofilamen. Serabut ini tersusun atas protein yang disebut fimetin. Akan tetapi, tidak semua sel tersusun atas fimetin, contohnya sel kulit tersusun oleh protein keratin, yang tergantung pada jenis sel.

 

3.     Mikrofilamen atau filamen aktin

Mikrofilamen merupakan batang padat, disebut juga filament aktin, karena filament ini tersusun dari molekul aktin, suatu protein globular.Mikrofilamen adalah rantai ganda protein yang saling bertaut dan tipis. Mikrofilamen berdiameter antara 5-7 nm. Karena kecilnya sehingga pengamatannya harus menggunakan mikroskop arring.

Mikrofilamen tersusun dari elemen fibrosa dengan diameter 60 angstrom terdiri dari protein aktin,dan juga mikrofilamen myosin dan tropomiosin yang banyak terdapat di sel otot. Aktin adalah protein globular dengan BM 42000 dalton. Merpakan protein terbanyak yang terdapat dalam sel eukariota hamper 5 % dari seluruh protein sel. Dalam bentuk monomer disebut aktin G, jika terakit dalam bentuk filament disebut aktin F. aktin sifatnya labil artinya mudah terakit dan mudah terurai. Aktin diketahui merupakan protein kontraktil yang terlibat dalam proses-proses yang terjadi dalam sel antara lain sitokenesis, aliran plasma, gerakan sel, gerakan mikrovili interfinal.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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